Calcium is the most common cation in the human body and is a very important mineral for the maintenance of neuromuscular function. This is 2% of the total body weight, 26% of the dry mass of bones and teeth, phosphates and carbonates. About 0.5 g of serum calcium are exchanged with bone metabolism every day.
Calcium absorption depends on the factors listed below:
1. The body needs. For a normal person, only 30% of calcium is absorbed, but in a defective person the absorbed rate is higher.
2. Concentration. Other factors are equal, the higher the calcium concentration in the food, the greater the absorption
. Intestinal movement. Intestine rush reduces calcium absorption. Because of the chronic diarrhea and the persistent use of cleaning agents, calcium absorption is significantly reduced.
4. Grease. If fat absorption is deficient, such as steatorrhoea, calcium combines with fatty acids in the intestinal lumen,
insoluble calcium soaps. Reduced fat absorption also reduces vitamin D absorption
5. Printed food. The calcium consumption of food is similar to that of whole milk, chocolate, and yogurt
cheese. Absorption is similar to whether calcium is taken in milk, calcium acetate, lactate, gluconate, citrate or carbonate. L-lysine amino acid promotes a positive calcium balance, not only because it increases calcium absorption, but also improves the absorption of absorbed calcium. Lactose (lactose) and amino acids such as arginine and tryptophan enhance calcium absorption. When combined with glucose polymers, calcium chloride absorption increased 1.5 to 5 times even in patients with vitamin D.
The cereals contain phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate), which combines insoluble calcium with calcium Fitat which is not absorbed. Similarly, foods containing oxalate, such as spinach, are combined with calcium and form insoluble calcium oxalate. Magnesium surplus obviously reduces the absorption of calcium. The lack of a beta-deficiency leads to the intake of milk (and, consequently, calcium) and is likely to reduce calcium absorption
. Vitamin D. Vitamin D, which stimulates calcium absorption-promoting calcium-binding protein, is the most important factor in promoting calcium absorption. When vitamin D is not consumed as a strict vegetarian (vegan)
(Which excludes milk as it is considered to be an animal) or if the skin is not adequately exposed to sunlight, the absence of severe vitamin D results in poor calcium absorption
Vitamin D3 (Calcitriol: 1.25 Dihydroxy vitamin 03) may be 400-800 IV in order to provide calcium absorption. For high-dose Vitamin 0, the absorption of calcium from food can be almost complete and even lower intake can be achieved by positive calcium balance.
Glucocorticoids and alcohol reduce intestinal calcium absorption
7. Calcium phosphorus ratio. In foods, the calcium and phosphorus ratio significantly affects absorption. Most meals
also contain appropriate phosphorus. Milk, eggs and leafy vegetables like salad provide these elements in the required proportion.
Calcium is present in plasma, but not in red blood cells. The serum level is approx. 0 mg / 100 ml (2.4 mmol / l), about half
ionized and residual protein-bound. Ionized calcium diffuses. Normal serum levels are maintained by parathyroid glands. The alkalosis reduces the ionizable serum calcium levels. Reduction of ionic calcium increases muscle irritability and tetanus
The rest of serum calcium is bound to proteins, especially albumin, such as when plasma albumin is serum
calcium is low; But since this decline is only in non-diffuse form, tetanus does not develop.
Parathyroid (PTH) mobilizes calcium and phosphorus from the bones to maintain blood levels.
Hyperparathyroidism results in the re-absorption of minerals. Bone matrix showing cysts X-rays
bones (osteitis fibrosa cystica), most commonly in the skull. It may be that kidney stones may also be detected without bone modification. PTH also stimulates the kidney's mitochondria to enhance conversion to calcitriol calcitriol, which enhances the
Intestinal Calcium Absorption
Calcitonin is a peptide hormone produced by thyroid C-cells. They have very short half-lives, so they are excreted
constantly. Secretion increases with increasing serum calcium. It helps to maintain blood levels by preventing the release of calcium and increasing urination
Thalapeutically, calcitone is used when serum calcium is high as in Paget's disease (where it reduces bone reabsorption)
and hyperparathyroidism and breast cancer (where it increases calcium excretion in urine). Estrogen increases the level of calcitonin and prevents bone loss. Postmenopausal bone loss can be associated with reduced estrogen; Therefore, it is more calcitonin
such as estrogen therapy for the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss and
Most calcium (99%) is stored in the bones and teeth. The skeleton is a dynamic tank in which calcium is continuously placed and re-absorbed. This dynamic activity is high in young people and decreases with age. About one percent
is the total body of calcium in the circulation and in the soft tissue.
An episode of mild or moderate malnutrition that occurs in the first year of life is associated many years later
Increased caries for both deciduous and permanent teeth. During puberty, the sex hormones cause girls about 200 mg while the boys collect 400 mg of calcium daily. Positive calcium equilibrium occurs only when calcium intake is greater than 1000 mg / day.
About half of the daily calcium intake is excreted in the stool, which is not absorbed by calcium And the calcium endogenous
sources. If a high dose of vitamin D is taken, the calcium content of the stool decreases. Approximately half of total daily calcium intake is excreted in the urine
. Calcium excretion in urine a
glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Urine selection is under parathyroid gland control, and
mainly refers to endogenous calcium. Normal dietary calcium is a normal diet of normal diet in the range of 100 to 300 mg (2.5 to 7.5 mmol) and 100 to 250 mg (2.5 to 6.5 mmol) per day. The kidneys retain calcium during the shortage.
With normal kidney function, about eight percent of the filtered calcium is excreted. By diuretics
frusemide or etacranic acid, calcium kidney resorption inhibited and urinary tract loss to 12%.
Thiazides, on the other hand, retain calcium by increasing renal tubular reabsorption and urinary loss is only three
percent. Therefore, in elderly patients with high blood pressure, especially in the case of female bone loss and osteoporosis, frusemide occurs. Thiazide is recommended for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. By reducing the calcium secretion,
Thiazide is also suitable for preventing recurrence of kidney stones.
Calcium and phosphorus are needed for bone formation
Calcium and phosphorus are needed for bone formation
Bone Consumption They consist of a protein matrix (frame) in which calcium phosphate is placed. Proteins, Vitamins A and C and Gins
hormones are required for matrix formation. Calcium in the bones should always be turned over with calcium
blood and other tissues, 0.5 g (12.5 mmol) daily. Ion calcium affects both neuromuscular irritability of both voluntary and voluntary muscles. When ionic serum is calcium
concentration. Neuromuscular excitability has increased considerably over tetanus. Calcium is required for blood clotting and capillary permeability.
Calcium is required for blood clotting and capillary permeability.
Milk and dairy products The best source of calcium. Calcium is absorbed more in milk than in other foods, as lysine and lactose (lactose) increase calcium absorption. Oily preparations such as butter, cream and ghee contain calcium, but contain a sufficient amount of vitamin D to help absorb calcium. One person's daily calcium requirements are simply supplied by a cup of buffalo milk. Molasses and vegetables, such as peas, beans, legumes, potatoes, cauliflowers and dried figs, also provide calcium. The pumpkin contains 240 gmg (6-7.5 mmol) of calcium 100 g. The chewing beta leaves with lime (calcium hydroxide) increase dietary calcium. Hard water contains calcium which can be better absorbed by the vitamin D in the tropical countries thanks to the sunlight effect. Chewberries also provide the proper calcium intake. The practice of vinegar drinks for several weeks, Indo-Chinese practice is a good source of adventure.
The tropical diet of rice, wheat or millet is deficient in calcium, but the body's exposure to sunlight produces vitamin D, which
improves absorption and compensates for low intake. Calcium carbonate is the cheapest source of calcium for calcium (fortification) in the West.
Humans have a remarkable capacity to achieve low calcium intake in the West.
adapt; This is compensated by reduced urination and
Increased intestinal absorption
The daily requirement for calcium ingestion varies according to the more favorable or otherwise absorption. In
tropics exposed to sunlight, the positive calcium balance is even lower than calcium intake
is recommended. The requirement increases with physical activity and is higher in athletes. The current calcium intake of US girls during the puberty growth period is inadequate and intake
Pregnancy increases calcium demand and absorption. The infant born at birth has more than 20 g (500 mmol) of calcium, most of which accumulated during the last three months when the bones of the fetus are formed. Even if the mother does not get extra calcium, the fetus still results in calcium from the mother's bones. If there is detectable calcium deficiency, the mother may be osteomalacia. Calcium is about 1.2 g (30 mmol) of calcium per day
Mom in the Last Trimester
Breastfeeding Causes Calcium to Lose; Human milk contains 20-30 mg of calcium per 100 ml (5-7.5 mmol / l). If you have 1000 ml of milk
secreted extra calcium 300 mg (7.5 mmol) should be absorbed by the mother. Even if the mother's calcium intake does not
adequate calcium concentration in milk is maintained to the required level by mobilizing from its bones. In order to meet losses and daily needs, the lactating mother needs 1.2 g (30 mmol) of calcium per day. Breast-feeding infants contain 50 mg (1.25 mmol) of calcium per day per kilogram of body weight. Two-thirds of artificially fed infants require this amount of calcium because absorption from artificial sources is not as effective as breast milk.
Low serum calcium levels are listed below:
1. Hypoparathyrosis and pseudohypoparathytoosis
Vitamin deficiency (i) due to poor nutrition; Ii. In regions where women are not exposed to sunlight; Or iii. Due
to reduce the absorption of steatorrhea
3. Low serum proteins (hypoproteinemia) in which the non-diffuse fraction bound to albumin decreases.
4. Kidney disease with a failure of phosphate retention or acidification of the urine which is associated with systemic acidosis and
5. Acute pancreatitis where pancreatic enzyme lipase is released into the peritoneum and blood, dividing the fat
7. Hypothermia following heart surgery
] 8. After stomach surgery, probably due to insufficient vitamin D absorption. These patients respond to a daily oral dose of 32.5 micrograms or 25 micrograms of vitamin D per week. Hypocalcemia may in some cases be hypoproteinemic after stomach surgery
. It is a high-protein diet that increases calcium excretion in urine.
10. Rheumatoid arthritis, where significant amounts of calcium are lost early in the disease